Possible Alternate Physics

The photon heterodyne model is a proposed alternative to the standard model of physics.

The standard model has two basic elements; particles and fields. Photons are also included, but they are not considered relevant to how particles move. It is the various kinds of fields that make particles move around.

The photon heterodyne model has two basic elements, photons and resonators. Particles are replaced by groups of resonating photons and movement is controlled by the exchange of photons.

Resonators constrain photons to a finite area, much like a resonant chamber can constrain audio waves to a finite area. Photons are quite different from audio waves, but they do have a frequency and wavelength as audio waves do. Details about resonators are unclear at this point, but postulating their existence seems to allow a more consistent view of physical phenomena than the standard model.

Standard model Heterodyne model
Expanding universe Constant size universe
Red shift due to expansion Red shift due to photon entropy
Conservation of energy Conservation of photons

The heterodyne model basically provides another way to explain red shift. Instead of an expanding universe, we can choose a shrinking photon. In this view photons would lose energy at a Planck's constant rate. That would make the change in photon energy over time pretty much undetectable directly with contemporary techniques, though we might be able to see the results of the shift both in the very small and very large frames of reference. At a local level, the difference between conservation of energy and conservation of photons would be difficult to measure, but on very large scales, the difference should be quite noticeable.

Perhaps a laser would help illustrate what I am thinking. The common assumption is that the photons that comprise the laser beam are identical, and indeed we have experimental evidence that they are very similar. But if photons are all loosing energy at a Planck's constant rate, then it would seem unlikely that that they are all identical. If there are differences in the wavelength of the photons in the laser beam they would show up as a loss of coherence as the beam got farther from the laser. Marching soldiers must all take the same length of step. If they don't, they will get out of step. If we could measure the coherence of the laser beam at different distances from the laser, we might be able to get a spectrum of the laser beam. In essence, the laser is a notch filter, and if it is like all the other notch filters we know about, the notch may be extremely narrow, but it does not have zero width.

If we are to adopt a model with no fields, then we need some way to account for the movement of particles that we usually attribute to fields. In the heterodyne view, particles are made up of photons traveling in tiny areas at the speed of light. Though they are captured by the resonator, they do not stop traveling at the speed of light, they just do it in a very confined space.

Movement would then be due to heterodyning of the wavelength of the photon with the physical dimensions of the resonator. If the photon does not exactly match the size of the resonator, that produces a difference and a product signal which is manifested as physical movement. A resonator can capture and hold a range of frequencies. The exact angle of the capture could determine the direction of movement.

In the heterodyne view, the velocity of a resonant particle is determined by the photons it holds. If the photons can only change energy at a Planck constant rate, then the velocity of particles would be nearly constant for very long periods of time. But if two resonant particles exchange photons, that would cause both of their velocities to change. That correlates with our experience in the physical world, where the interaction between objects often causes the velocities of all particles involved to change. With no outside interference things will continue moving in a constant geodesic.

There would appear to be four such resonators discovered so far. From smallest wavelength to largest, that would be the Higgs, proton, electron, and neutrino resonators. Certainly there could be more, both smaller and larger.

Resonators seem to be be able to aggregate into larger systems through the interaction of photons. A hydrogen atom would then usually be composed of an electron resonator and a proton resonator. The combination of the two elementary resonators could then capture and hold longer wavelength photons than either could handle alone.

The heterodyne model would explain the two to three ratio of various properties of quarks by postulating that photons with frequency ratios that were approximately small whole numbers could share a resonant structure, much as they do in audio resonance.

Very complex molecules, composed of lots of resonators tend to decay. The prime example of this is uranium with hundreds of resonators. If the photons captured by all these resonators are losing energy, then at some point one of them will outgrow its resonator. As the photon energy diminishes, its wavelength grows. When the photon gets too large, it escapes from its resonator, and starts traveling linearly at the speed of light. That upsets all the balances of the atom, and it can do various things depending on which resonator is disrupted and when. Simpler atoms could last for a longer time, but if this view if correct, then there is no such thing as a stable atom.

With the number of hydrogen atoms in the universe we would expect to see the products of this decay, and perhaps we do. It might be what we now refer to as background radiation. The decay of a hydrogen atom would be a much simpler and less energy intensive process than the decay of a uranium atom.

In the standard model, gravity is a field, and we can see locally that two objects attract each other according to the inverse-square law, but that appears to break down for large objects at great distance apart. The heterodyne model provides a possible explanation. Perhaps gravity is a manifestation of photon exchange, just as the other fields are. The photons would be very long wavelength compared to what we are used to dealing with, and there would have to be a lot of them.

If gravity results from photon exchange, then it is limited by the speed of light. If the earth is eight light minutes from the sun, then the earth would be attracted to where the sun was eight minutes ago and the sun would be attracted to where the earth was eight minutes ago. If two galaxies are a million light years apart, they would each be attracted to where the other one was a million years ago. That might be a possible explanation for dark energy and matter.

Also there could be reflectors in the universe that we cannot detect yet because we don't have an alternate viewpoint from which to check our location with reference to distant objects. If you see an object in a mirror, and could check the light you are seeing for redshift, you could get a good approximation of how far the photons have traveled. But you could not pinpoint their exact location unless you knew the exact location of the mirror. There may be other mechanism that could deflect photons from the straight and narrow path that is currently assumed.

Some of the long wavelength photons could be resonating with large structures and that might produce results that would not agree with the inverse-square law.

Physicists have learned a lot about the subatomic realm by cooling atoms to absolute zero. The heterodyne explanation for the phenomenon of tunneling might go like this: When a group of resonant particles is cooled, there eventually comes a point when there are not enough photons to fill all the slots in some resonators. That makes some resonator unstable, and that causes them to give up all their photons. The photons thus freed take off at the speed of light in a more or less linear path, but then they meet up with other photons and resonators and recombine. It seems to an observer that the particle has disappeared from one location and appeared in another.

And then there is the Bose-Einstein condensate. As atoms get really cold there is less variety in ambient photon energies. The atoms become more uniform in size. That allows them to be organized in a coherent beam. The interaction of two or more of these atomic beams, and also the interaction of Bose-Einstein beams with lasers of various frequencies, might produce interesting results.

Now lets tackle entanglement. All of the heterodyne model is currently speculation, of course, but we have to go farther into that realm to explain entanglement.

Let's assume that the engine of entanglement is photon-like,but travels at a much greater speed. We could call them hyphons. A photon would perform somewhat the same function for the hyphon as a resonator performs for the photon. The photon would constrain the hyphons path, but because the speed is so much greater, the paths could be a lot larger.

We could use this model to explain the entanglement of photons, but we could also use it to speculate about the nature of black holes and Hawking radiation. Perhaps when a photon crosses the event horizon of a black hole, it dissolves in the hyphon plasma that is in the interior of the black hole. There could be a cloud of hyphons that extend beyond the event horizon of the black hole. Some of these hyphons might recombine to form the photons that comprise Hawking radiation. This might mean that if we knew the exact state of the black hole and the photons that were crossing the event horizon and being dissolved, we might be able to describe the various characteristics of the Hawking radiation. That might be a possible solution to the puzzle of information loss in black holes.